February 20, 2003

WHEN BASE RUNNERS ARE OUT. 30

RULE 48. The Base Runner is out:

SEC. 1. If, after three strikes have been declared against him while
Batsman, and the Catcher fail to catch the third strike ball, he plainly
attempts to hinder the Catcher from fielding the ball.

SEC. 2. If, having made a Fair Hit while Batsman, such fair hit ball be
momentarily held by a Fielder, before touching the ground or any object
other than a Fielder. _Provided_, it be not caught in a Fielder's hat or
cap.

SEC. 3. If, when the Umpire has declared three strikes on him, while
batsman, the third strike ball be momentarily held by a Fielder before
touching the ground. _Provided_, it be not caught in a Fielder's hat or
cap, or touch some object other than a Fielder before being caught.

SEC. 4. If, after Three Strikes or a Fair Hit, he be touched with the
ball in the hand of a Fielder before such Base Runner touches First Base.

SEC. 5. If, after Three Strikes or a Fair Hit, the ball be securely held
by a Fielder, while touching First Base with any part of his person,
before such Base Runner touches First Base.

SEC. 6. If, in running the last half of the distance from Home Base to
First Base, he runs outside the Three Feet Lines, as defined in Rule 10;
except that he must do so if necessary to avoid a Fielder attempting to
field a batted ball, and in such case shall not be declared out.

SEC. 7. If, in running from First to Second Base, from Second to Third
Base, or from Third to Home Base, he runs more than three feet from a
direct line between such bases to avoid being touched by the ball in the
hands of a Fielder; but in case a Fielder be occupying the Base Runner's
proper path, attempting to field a batted ball, then the Base Runner shall
run out of the path and behind said Fielder, and shall not be declared out
for so doing.

SEC. 8. If he fails to avoid a Fielder attempting to field a batted ball,
in the manner prescribed in Sections 6 and 7 of this Rule; or if he, in
any way, obstructs a Fielder attempting to field a batted ball, or
intentionally interferes with a thrown ball: _Provided_, That if two or
more Fielders attempt to field a batted ball, and the Base Runner comes in
contact with one or more of them, the Umpire shall determine which Fielder
is entitled to the benefit of this Rule, and shall not decide the Base
Runner out for coming in contact with any other Fielder.

SEC. 9. If, at any time while the ball is in play, he be touched by the
ball in the hands of a Fielder, unless some part of his person is touching
a base he is entitled to occupy: _Provided_, The ball be held by the
Fielder after touching him; but (exception as to First Base), in running
to First Base, he may overrun said base without being put out for being
off said base, after first touching it, provided he returns at once and
retouches the base, after which he may be put out as at any other base.
If, in overrunning First Base, he also attempts to run to Second Base, or,
after passing the base he turns to his left from the foul line, he shall
forfeit such exemption from being put out.

SEC. 10. If, when a Fair or Foul Hit ball, other than a foul tip as
referred to in Rule 38, is legally caught by a Fielder, such ball is
legally held by a Fielder on the base occupied by the Base Runner when
such ball was struck (or the Base Runner be touched with the ball in the
hands of a Fielder), before he retouches said base after such Fair or Foul
Hit ball was so caught. _Provided_, That the Base Runner shall not be out
in such case, if, after the ball was legally caught as above, it be
delivered to the bat by the Pitcher before the Fielder holds it on said
base, or touches the Base Runner with it; but if the Base Runner in
attempting to reach a base, detaches it before being touched or forced out
he shall be declared safe.

SEC. 11. If, when a Batsman becomes a Base Runner, the First Base, or the
First and Second Bases, or the First, Second and Third Bases, be occupied,
any Base Runner so occupying a base shall cease to be entitled to hold it,
until any following Base Runner is put out and may be put out at the next
base or by being touched by the ball in the hands of a Fielder in the same
manner as in running to First Base, at any time before any following Base
Runner is put out.

SEC. 12. If a Fair Hit ball strike him _before touching the fielder_ and
in such case no base shall be run unless forced by the Batsman becoming a
Base Runner, and no run shall be scored.

SEC. 13. If when running to a base or forced to return to a base, he fail
to touch the intervening base or bases, if any, in the order prescribed in
Rule 45, he may be put out at the base he fails to touch, or by being
touched by the ball in the hands of a Fielder, in the same manner as in
running to First Base.

SEC. 14. If, when the Umpire calls "Play," after any suspension of a
game, he fails to return to and touch the base he occupied when "Time" was
called before touching the next base.

WHEN BATSMAN OR BASE RUNNER IS OUT.

RULE 49. The Umpire shall declare the Batsman or Base Runner out, without
waiting for an appeal for such decision, in all cases where such player is
put out in accordance with these rules, except as provided in Rule 48,
Sections 10 and 14.

COACHING RULES.

RULE 50. The Captains and Coachers are restricted in coaching to the Base
Runner only, and are not allowed to address any remarks except to the Base
Runner, and then only in words of necessary direction; and no player shall
use language which will in any manner refer to or reflect upon a player of
the opposing club, or the audience. To enforce the above, the Captain of
the opposite side may call the attention of the Umpire to the offence, and
upon a repetition of the same the club shall be debarred from further
coaching during the game.

THE UMPIRE.

RULE 51. The Umpire shall not be changed during the progress of a game,
except for reasons of illness or injury.

HIS POWERS AND JURISDICTION.

RULE 52. SEC. 1. The Umpire is master of the Field from the commencement
to the termination of the game, and is entitled to the respect of the
spectators, and any person offering any insult or indignity to him must be
promptly ejected from the grounds.

SEC. 2. He must compel the players to observe the provisions of all the
Playing Rules, and he is hereby invested with authority to order any
player to do or omit to do any act as he may deem necessary, to give force
and effect to any and all of such provisions.

SPECIAL DUTIES.

RULE 53. The Umpire's duties shall be as follows:

SEC. 1. The Umpire is the sole and absolute judge of play. In no instance
shall any person be allowed to question the correctness of any decision
made by him except the Captains of the contending nines, and no other
player shall at such time leave his position in the field, his place at
the bat, on the bases or players' bench, to approach or address the Umpire
in word or act upon such disputed decision. Neither shall any Manager or
other officers of either club--except the Captains as before mentioned--
be permitted to go upon the field or address the Umpire in regard to such
disputed decision, under a penalty of a forfeiture of the game to the
opposing club. The Umpire shall in no case appeal to any spectator for
information in regard to any case, and shall not reverse his decision on
any point of play on the testimony of any player or bystander.

SEC. 2. Before the commencement of a Game, the Umpire shall see that the
rules governing all the materials of the game are strictly observed. He
shall ask the Captain of the Home Club whether there are any special
ground rules to be enforced, and if there are, he shall see that they are
duly enforced, provided they do not conflict with any of these Rules. He
shall also ascertain whether the fence in the rear of the Catcher's
position is distant ninety feet from the Home Base.

SEC. 3. The Umpire must keep the contesting nines playing constantly from
the commencement of the game to its termination, allowing such delays only
as are rendered unavoidable by accident, injury or rain. He must, until
the completion of the game, require the players of each side to promptly
take their positions in the field as soon as the the third man is put out,
and must require the first striker of the opposite side to be in his
position at the bat as soon as the fielders are in their places.

SEC. 4. The Umpire shall count and call every "unfair ball" delivered by
the Pitcher, and every "dead ball," if also an unfair ball, as a "ball,"
and he shall also count and call every "strike." Neither a "ball" nor a
"strike" shall be counted or called until the ball has passed the home
base. He shall also declare every "Dead Ball," "Block," "Foul Hit," "Foul
Strike," and "Balk."

RULE 54. For the special benefit of the patrons of the game, and because
the offences specified are under his immediate jurisdiction, and not
subject to appeal by players, the attention of the Umpire is particularly
directed to possible violations of the purpose and spirit of the Rules of
the following character:

SEC. 1. Laziness or loafing of players in taking their places in the
field, or those allotted them by the Rules when their side is at the bat,
and especially any failure to keep the bats in the racks provided for
them; to be ready (two men) to take position as Batsmen, and to remain
upon the Players' Bench, except when otherwise required by the Rules.

SEC. 2. Any attempt by players of the side at bat, by calling to a
Fielder, other than the one designated by his Captain, to field a ball, or
by any other equally disreputable means seeking to disconcert a Fielder.

SEC. 3. The Rules make a marked distinction between hindrance of an
adversary in fielding a batted or thrown ball. This has been done to rid
the game of the childish excuses and claims formerly made by a Fielder
failing to hold a ball to put out a Base Runner. But there may be cases of
a Base Runner so flagrantly violating the spirit of the Rules and of the
Game in obstructing a Fielder from fielding a thrown ball that it would
become the duty of the Umpire, not only to declare the Base Runner "out"
(and to compel any succeeding Base Runners to hold their bases), but also
to impose a heavy fine upon him. For example: If the Base Runner plainly
strike at the ball while passing him, to prevent its being caught by a
Fielder; if he holds a Fielder's arms so as to disable him from catching
the ball, or if he run against or knock the Fielder down for the same
purpose.